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COLLECTION OF DATA: The process of Counting or enumerating and
recording the same systematically is called collection of data.
Primary data: If the data are collected originally for the first time are called
primary data.
The Sources of primary data are
 Direct Personal observations: Investigations themselves go to the field
personally observe and collect the information from the informants.
 Indirect Oral Interview: Investigations used to appoint experienced
enumerators to collect the data. The enumerators are asked to interview the
respondents and record the answer given by them.
 Local Agencies: Investigators used to appoint local agents or correspondents
in different parts of the area to collect the data.
 Questionnaires: A questionnaire is a list of logically arranged questions
relating to the field of enquiry and providing space for the answer to be
filled in by the respondents.
 Schedules: It is a printed list of simple questions. it is sent to the respondents
through the enumerators. The enumerators discuss personally with the
respondents and record their answers in the schedule.
Secondary data: if he makes use of the data which had been earlier collected by
someone else, it is termed as secondary data.
The Sources of Secondary data.
1) Published Sources: It refers to the data sources which are available in printed
format. Like journals, newspapers, books, websites etc.
2) Unpublished Sources: The data which are not available in printed form. There
are various data available which are unwritten in any format.
Techniques of Data Collection.
1) Census Technique.
2) Sample Technique.

Census Technique: When each and every unit of population under study is
considered and collected for a statistical investigation.
Sample Technique: The terminology “sampling” means the process of selecting a
part of the population under study with a view to obtaining information about the
whole population.

CLASIFICATION OF DATA:It is a process of arranging data into
sequences and groups or classes according to their attributes or
Objectives of Classification of data.
1. To condense the mass of data.
2. To facilitate comparison.
3. To bring homogeneity to heterogeneous features of raw data.
4. To highlight the most significant features contained in the data at a glance.
Types of classification:
 Qualitative Classification: Data are classified according to attribute or
characteristics or qualities. Generally the qualitative phenomena are not
measurable. However, they can be studied with reference to their presence or
absence like educated or uneducated, married and unmarried, boys &girls
 Quantitative Classification. Data are classified according to quantities that
are measurable such as age, weight, marks, price and so on

 Class interval: size of each class or group. It begins with lower limit
and ends with upper limit.
 Inclusive class interval: size of a class in which both the class limits
are considered.

 Exclusive class interval:size of class in which the lower limit included
and upper limit excluded.
 Cumulative frequency:it is running total of all the frequencies up to
and including the respective class intervals are in ascending or
descending order of values.
 Less than cumulative frequency :totals of the frequencies downwards
starting from the first frequency.
 more than cumulative frequency :totals of the frequencies upwards
starting from the last frequency.
TABULATION OF DATA: The process of placing classified data into
tabular form is known as tabulation. A table is a symmetric arrangement
of statistical data in rows and columns. Rows are horizontal arrangements
whereas columns are vertical arrangements.
Contents of a Table:
1. Table number
2. Title of Table.
3. Data.
4. Row designation.
5. column Heading.
6. Body of the Table.
7. Head note.
8. source of Data.
9. Foot note.

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