The methods or types of costing refers to the methods used in the ascertainment of cost of products and services.Several methods have been designed to suit the needs of different industries. The method of costing to be used In a particular concern depends upon the type and the nature of manufacturing activities . There are two main types of costing , they are –
All other methods are variants of either job costing or process costing .
Various methods are as follows –
I. JOB COSTING:
Under this method, each job or work order or projectis identified separately to be treated as a cost unit and for which the cost are separately calculated and accumulated .According to CIMA of U.K. job costing is being defined as “applies where work is undertaken to customers’ special requirement ” . A job may be big or small , comprises of specific quantity of product to be produced as per customer specification .
The industries where this method of costing is applied are –
General engineering workshops , etc
CONTRACT / TERMINAL COSTING
In contract costing the work Is carried as per customers specification . Here each contract is considered as separate cost unit. A separate contract account Is opened for each contract to ascertain profit on each contract . Contract costing is most suited to –
Civil engineering contracts such as construction of buildings , construction of
dams , bridges , roads , etc …
Ship building , air craft’s construction , etc..
A batch represents a number of small orders or group of identical products produced in a batch . Therefore, each batch of product is treated as cost unit for which cost are separately ascertained . This method is used in companies engaged In production of ready made garments , toys , biscuits and chocolates , shoes , tyres and
tubes , compound parts , etc ..
OPERATING / SERVICE COSTING
This method of costing is used in the undertakings which provides services.
Examples of undertakings using this methods are –
Transport undertakings ( road transport , airways , shipping )
Cinema theatres , etc .
Cost is ascertained per unit of service rendered . These are usually a compound cost unit .
Example : In transport company cost is as ascertained in tonne- kilometre or passenger kilometre
SINGLE / OUTPUT / UNIT COSTING –
This methodof cost ascertainment is used when production is uniform and consist of single or more varieties of same product . Where the product is produced in different grades, cost are ascertained grade wise . As the unit of output are identical, the cost per unit is calculated by dividing the total cost by the number of units produced . The cost is ascertained in the form of cost
sheet for a definite period . This method is applied in mines , steel mills , flour mills , quarries,etc ..
OPERATION COSTING –
A process may consist anumber of operations as explained in the last stage of textile industry which involves number of operations such as polishing , dying , designing , packingetc and operation costing involves cost ascertainment of each operation which is involved in process costing .
II PROCESS COSTING
Process costing method is used In mass production Industries which manufactures standardised products In which raw materials passes through number of process of manufacturingprocess in a particular sequence to completion stage . A process here
means a stage of production . Cost are accumulated for each process or department wise . As all the units produced are alike , in order to arrive at the cost per unit , the total cost of process Is divided by number of units produced . The finished product of
one process is passed on to the next process in sequence as raw materials .
For example , the manufacturing of clothes in textile factory involves different process The first process is spinning process ,i.e, yarn is produced which is used by the weavers as raw materials in the next process ,i.e, in the weaving process . In the second process, the output of weaving process ,i.e, cloth is determined and transported to the next process ,i.e, finishing process which involves different operations like dying , designing and packing process . Therefore in such multiple process industry , process costing is used to ascertain the cost of each process . Example of this method are
soap manufacturing industry ,
sugar mills ,
chemical manufacturing industries ,
textile industries , etc .
III MULTIPLE COSTING / COMPOSITE COST
It is an application of more than one method of cost ascertainment in respect of same product. This method is used in engineering industries where a number of components are separately manufactured in different nature to assemble into a final product .
Example : Refrigerators , automobile industries , air conditioners , computers , mobile
phones , air crafts , etc .